Being able to predict total cost of ownership is crucial for predicting long-term field investment outcomes.
Increasingly many operators are now recognising the benefit of totex evaluation as a means of sustainable cost reduction. This process allows the operator to combine capex and opex costs and extract the best value from the asset throughout its required operating life.
Our integrated lining system offers the most cost effective life cycle cost by providing a design life around four times longer than an unlined carbon steel pipe at a comparable price and with additional operational cost benefits. The Swagelining system is 35% cheaper than the most cost effective alternative CRA pipeline system.
A significant proportion of infrastructure costs are associated with ongoing operational expenditure, in addition to the original infrastructure capital investment.
Swagelining’s integrated lining system offers around $2m annual savings on a typical 15km 10 inch water injection pipeline. Our system delivers commercial savings through reduced injection pump energy costs delivered from improved flow assurance and also removal of the requirement for periodic pipeline wall thickness inspections.
Eliminating corrosion using a liner also means that injection water does not need to be treated with corrosion inhibitor, which reduces opex cost relating to inhibitor replenishment. Oxygen removal is also eliminated. Capex is also removed relating to the provision of the inhibitor injection system, the utilities serving it and the real estate and support structure required to house it.
Through research and numerous discussions with operators we believe that over a typical 25 year design life, such opex cost reductions could offer savings of around $50m.
Pipeline owners tell us that their unlined pipelines are failing early and causing significant unplanned production outages. Our product can offer a 50 year design life, ensuring long term pipeline operations become more certain.
That design life is based on accelerated ageing testing for six months at 100°C, predicting a 50 year service life at 50°C whilst maintaining original mechanical properties.
Minimum service life predictions can be determined using established ISO lifetime extrapolation techniques for plastic pressure pipes.
These conservative lifetime predictions can be used to ensure that the selected polymer will exceed the design lifetime at maximum design or operating temperature depending on the technical specification of the individual project.
Deeper water and more aggressive fluids are causing increased pipeline and riser wall thickness. The Swagelining integrated liner system removes the need for pipeline corrosion allowances offering reduced weight and enabling lower installation and floating production host costs.
In deepwater riser systems, some pipeline owners are now installing steel catenary risers with wall thicknesses in excess of two inches. These extreme wall thicknesses are often a result of a compounding effect on the tensile loadings and fatigue requirements initiated by the included corrosion allowance.
These heavy wall risers result in a substantial top tension which increases fabrication and installation costs as well as placing a significant load on the Floating Production Unit (FPU). Such significant FPU hang-off loads often result in increased topside costs.
Swagelining’s integrated liner system removes the need for corrosion allowances and thus offers significant cost savings though reduced weight.
The global average recovery factor for a typical oilfield is approximately 40%. Enhanced oil recovery (EOR) techniques are aiding improved recovery from new and mature fields by enhancing pore level sweeping in the reservoir and improving reservoir pressure.
Swagelining’s integrated liner system can eliminate reservoir damage resulting from corroded pipeline particles and injected corrosion inhibition chemicals.
Impurities within injected water can reduce the effective injectivity index (bbl/psi) resulting in the injection wells becoming clogged from particulate matter, or blocked via relative permeability degradation. Ultimately this would lead to the injector requiring fracced in order to maintain the required injection. This results in significant well workover cost, reduced production and loss of placement control.
Engineered by polymer experts, our pipeline liners are the thinnest in the industry, offering our customers optimum flow performance and enhanced hydrocarbon recovery.
While the internal surface of an unlined pipeline will deteriorate over time and cause increased pumping costs, the surface smoothness of a polymer liner will typically last the life of the pipeline, ensuring no loss of hydraulic performance over its operational life.
With the industry increasing tie-back lengths the benefits of the Swagelining integrated lining system can offer significant returns.
Unlined pipeline systems require a careful balance of operational constraints such as control of minimum fluid velocities, accurate dosing of corrosion inhibition chemicals and routine cleaning pig runs to prevent buildup of sediment. All of these precautions are required in an attempt to minimise corrosion. Unfortunately as well as added cost, these constraints add operational complexity. It is often the case that this careful balance of operational constraints is not achieved for a variety of reasons leading to premature degradation and subsequent failure of the pipeline.
A Swagelining integrated lining system provides a robust corrosion resistant pipeline while removing the requirement of multiple operational support operations, thus reducing operational risk and ensuring long term pipeline integrity.